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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of both groups

From: Technology-supported sitting balance therapy versus usual care in the chronic stage after stroke: a pilot randomized controlled trial

  Experimental group Control group  
  N = 15 N = 15 p-value independent t-test
Age (mean ± SD) 54.20 11.46 49.07 13.99 0.28
Sex
  Female (n)   7   8  
  Male (n)   8   7  
Type of stroke 0.72
  Ischaemic (n)   7   10  
  Haemorrhagic (n)   7   5  
Hemiplegic side 0.48
  Left (n)   8   5  
  Right (n)   6   10  
Dominant side 0.33
  Left (n)   2   1  
  Right (n)   12   13  
  Bilateral (n)     1  
Time since stroke in days (mean ± SD) 1913 2834 1177 1375 0.39
phq-9 [0–27] (mean ± SD) 6.47 3.46 3.87 4.31 0.08
Laterality index star cancellation [0–1] (mean ± SD) 0.48 0.07 0.50 0.01 0.33
MoCa [0–30] (mean ± SD) 25.67 4.37 26.33 2.35 0.61
Fall ratio last month (n) (mean + range) 0.29 0–1 0.07 0–1 0.13
2-Minute Walk Test in m (mean ± SD) 104.05 53.54 104.86 48.86 0.97
Functional Ambulation Category 0.33
  0 (n)   1   1  
  1 (n)   0   0  
  2 (n)   0   2  
  3 (n)   4   4  
  4 (n)   5   8  
  5 (n)   4   0  
10 Metre Walk Test, comfortable speed in m/s (mean ± SD) 0.76 0.32 0.81 0.35 0.68
10 Metre Walk Test, maximum speed in m/s (mean ± SD) 1.08 0.49 1.12 0.56 0.82
Trunk Impairment Scale [0–23] (mean ± SD) 11.80 3.10 12.40 3.60 0.63
Fugl-Meyer of Lower Extremities [0–34] (median ± IQR) 24.00 17 24.00 8 0.84
Forward Reach in cm (mean ± SD) 37.42 6.14 41.06 7.8 0.17
Reach to the affected side in cm (mean ± SD) 23.25 7.24 25.58 4.27 0.29
Reach to the less affected side in cm (median ± IQR) 28.25 11.50 28.75 5.00 0.39
Backwards Reach in cm (mean ± SD) 39.18 10.21 39.81 7.11 0.85
Berg Balance Scale [0–56] (median ± IQR) 50 14 50 9 1.00
Functional Independence Measure
  Cognition [5–34] (mean ± SD) 28.27 5.86 31.47 3.83 0.09
  Motor [13–91] (median ± IQR) 80 18 81 10 0.87
  Total [18–126] (median ± IQR) 107 9 112 21 0.43
Modified Barthel Index [0–20] (median ± IQR) 18 4 19 3 0.49
Total rehabilitation time in hours (mean ± SD) 14.43 15.24 15.23 13.84 0.89
  1. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, n number, N total number, cm centimeter, m metre, s seconds, MoCa Montreal cognitive assessment, phq-9 patient health questionnaire