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Table 4 Associations of self-reported and functional outcomes with FSST-VR performance

From: Factors associated with dynamic balance in people with Persistent Postural Perceptual Dizziness (PPPD): a cross-sectional study using a virtual-reality Four Square Step Test

Self-reported/functional outcomes Spatiotemporal head kinematic outcomes
Number of peaks low (N) AP ROM low (m) AP ROM high (m) ML ROM high (m) HR low (bpm)
PPPD
 STAI-trait − 0.08 − 0.11 − 0.47* − 0.48* 0.04
 ABC − 0.18 0.26 0.37 0.53* − 0.34
 TUG 0.39 − 0.21 − 0.52* − 0.49* 0.01
 DHI − 0.03 − 0.29 − 0.31 − 0.51* 0.25
Controls
 STAI-trait − 0.2 0.34 0.38* 0.32 0.4*
 ABC 0.45** − 0.29 − 0.4* − 0.22 − 0.18
 TUG − 0.50** 0.39* 0.46* 0.53** 0.02
  1. Values in the table are Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and significance. * = p < 0.05, ** = 0 < 0.01.
  2. Low = Simple visual environment; High = pooled Complex and Complex + visual environments; AP ROM = Anteroposterior forward–backward stepping; ML ROM = Mediolateral side-stepping; HR = heart rate; STAI-trait = the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory—trait; ABC = Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale; DHI = Dizziness Handicap Inventory/Hebrew Dizziness Handicap Inventory; TUG = Timed-Up and Go test; TMT-B = Trail making Test part B FSST = Four Square Step Test. Outcomes with no significant relationship with all variables were excluded from the table. These are, for both groups: Movement duration (low and high) and Number of peaks (high)