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Table 2 Means (± SDs) of mechanical work, spatiotemporal gait parameters, functional gait tasks, and clinical scores for the AANmDOF robotic and conventional gait training groups, before (T0), immediately after (T1), and four months after (T2) the six-week intervention period

From: Effect of assist-as-needed robotic gait training on the gait pattern post stroke: a randomized controlled trial

  AANmDOF robotic Conventional
T0
n = 17
T1
n = 16
T2
n = 13
T0
n = 15
T1
n = 15
T2
n = 14
Mechanical work  
 WEXT (J/kg/m) * 0.61 ± 0.25 0.52 ± 0.18 0.69 ± 0.26 0.63 ± 0.23 0.53 ± 0.20 0.70 ± 0.29
Spatiotemporal parameters       
 Gait speed (m/s) * ** 0.47 ± 0.36 0.67 ± 0.29 0.81 ± 0.24 0.62 ± 0.36 0.75 ± 0.38 0.81 ± 0.32
 Step width (m) * 0.15 ± 0.04 0.15 ± 0.05 0.14 ± 0.05 0.16 ± 0.06 0.18 ± 0.06 0.17 ± 0.06
Step length       
 Paretic (m) * ** 0.35 ± 0.15 0.46 ± 0.11 0.51 ± 0.10 0.43 ± 0.13 0.48 ± 0.13 0.49 ± 0.12
 Non-paretic (m) * ** 0.33 ± 0.17 0.44 ± 0.14 0.50 ± 0.09 0.39 ± 0.20 0.46 ± 0.19 0.50 ± 0.15
 Symmetry ratio * ** 0.04 ± 0.05 0.04 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.10 0.04 ± 0.06 0.03 ± 0.03
Single-support time       
 Paretic (% gait cycle) * ** 0.28 ± 0.08 0.33 ± 0.06 0.34 ± 0.05 0.31 ± 0.07 0.33 ± 0.05 0.33 ± 0.04
 Non-paretic (% gait cycle) * 0.32 ± 0.06 0.36 ± 0.05 0.36 ± 0.04 0.36 ± 0.05 0.37 ± 0.05 0.36 ± 0.04
 Symmetry ratio * ** 0.05 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.04 0.03 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.03 0.04 ± 0.03 0.03 ± 0.03
Functional gait tasks       
 10-Meter Walk Test (m/s) * ** 0.61 ± 0.35 0.86 ± 0.38 1.07 ± 0.27 0.76 ± 0.38 0.95 ± 0.38 1.07 ± 0.40
 6-Minute Walk Test (m) * ** 220 ± 149 301 ± 163 398 ± 119 247 ± 130 343 ± 147 383 ± 138
 Functional Gait Assessment * ** 14.7 ± 5.7 19.5 ± 4.8 23.6 ± 5.4 15.9 ± 5.8 21.7 ± 5.2 21.7 ± 5.3
 Timed Up and Go test (s) * ** 23.1 ± 15.0 17.0 ± 14.4 11.4 ± 6.1 19.5 ± 11.8 14.1 ± 7.6 12.4 ± 6.4
Clinical scores       
 Fugl Meyer Assessment – leg score * ** 24.2 ± 4.6 26.4 ± 5.0 28.9 ± 4.1 23.4 ± 6.8 28.9 ± 4.1 26.8 ± 5.5
 Motricity Index – leg score * ** 63.9 ± 17.0 77.0 ± 13.7 86.2 ± 13.2 62.5 ± 26.4 71.8 ± 24.6 72.5 ± 22.2
  1. Functional Gait Assessment: range 0–30; Fugl Meyer Assessment – leg score: range 0–34; Motricity Index – leg score: range 0–100.
  2. *significant Time effect T0 vs T1 (p ≤ 0.05); **significant Time effect T0 vs T2 (p ≤ 0.05); † significant Group x Time interaction T0 vs T1 (p ≤ 0.05); ‡ significant Group x Time interaction T0 vs T2 (p-value ≤ 0.05);