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Table 2 Between-group comparisons of the changes in outcome measures in the first and second 6-week periods

From: Effects of interactive video-game–based exercise on balance in older adults with mild-to-moderate Parkinson’s disease

  First 6-week period Second 6-week period
  Group A Group B P value a Group A Group B P value a
  Mean ± SD   Mean ± SD  
BBS (score) 1.0 ± 3.8 1.4 ± 6.7 0.85 −3.1 ± 4.9 9.9 ± 7.2 < 0.0001
SF-36 (score)
 Physical functioning 9.6 ± 10.5 0 ± 19.2 0.14 2.5 ± 13.6 10.9 ± 19.1 0.23
 Physical problems 10.0 ± 31.3 −13.9 ± 32.4 0.09 −1.7 ± 23.9 18.8 ± 28.5 0.07
 Emotional problems 10.9 ± 29.5 −23.3 ± 39.5 0.02 −2.9 ± 25.2 29.6 ± 35.2 0.02
 Vitality (energy/ fatigue) 13.8 ± 13.5 2.9 ± 25.1 0.20 −0.4 ± 21.4 8.3 ± 23.1 0.35
 General mental health 11.4 ± 21.5 5.3 ± 14.3 0.42 −0.2 ± 25.0 5.8 ± 22.5 0.54
 Social functioning 14.2 ± 34.2 0.6 ± 19.6 0.25 0 ± 0 11.3 ± 28.2 0.19
 Bodily pain 5.6 ± 31.6 15.2 ± 26.9 0.43 1.7 ± 35.5 9.6 ± 29.2 0.56
 General health 6.7 ± 34.7 7.9 ± 18.1 0.91 4.6 ± 35.3 8.8 ± 20.6 0.73
MFES (score) 8.3 ± 17.0 −8.1 ± 14.1 0.02 −6.5 ± 15.0 21.3 ± 35.7 0.03
MDRT (cm)
 MDRT-F 1.6 ± 6.5 3.1 ± 6.5 0.57 −1.7 ± 6.2 1.2 ± 6.5 0.29
 MDRT-R 8.5 ± 7.4 −0.5 ± 5.5 0.003 −2.7 ± 8.6 2.2 ± 4.2 0.09
 MDRT-L 6.9 ± 5.9 −0.8 ± 5.8 0.004 −2.7 ± 8.3 3.6 ± 6.2 0.05
MSL (cm)
 R. Ant 3.1 ± 10.4 4.9 ± 12.4 0.69 −2.3 ± 8.2 2.7 ± 6.8 0.12
 L. Ant 2.4 ± 12.4 2.8 ± 4.4 0.92 −1.2 ± 9.7 4.6 ± 8.3 0.13
 R. Side 2.6 ± 8.7 3.1 ± 9.4 0.89 −1.8 ± 9.7 8.9 ± 10.4 0.02
 L. Side 0.5 ± 10.2 −0.03 ± 7.3 0.89 −1.4 ± 11.0 7.5 ± 9.1 0.04
 R. Post 4.3 ± 13.4 6.7 ± 8.9 0.63 −6.4 ± 9.3 7.5 ± 11.5 0.004
 L. Post 2.9 ± 14.3 6.7 ± 7.7 0.43 −5.9 ± 8.3 5.9 ± 9.2 0.003
  1. SD standard deviation, BBS Berg Balance Scale, SF-36 the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, MFES Modified Falls Efficacy Scale, MDRT Multi-Directional Reach Test, MDRT-F MDRT to the forward side, MDRT-R MDRT to the right side, MDRT-L MDRT to the left side, MSL Maximum Step Length, R. Ant right leg, anterior side, L. Ant left leg, anterior side, R. Side right side, L. Side left side, R. Post right leg, posterior side, L. Post left leg, posterior side
  2. aThe alpha value was set to 0.05 for BBS and MFES; 0.0031 for subscales of SF-36; 0.0083 for subscales of MDRT; 0.0042 for subscales of MSL. Significant difference after Bonferroni correction was indicated in bold