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Table 4 Mean ± SD of average intra-subject variability of hip, knee and ankle flexion-extension angle categorized by speed and walking modality

From: Physical human-robot interaction of an active pelvis orthosis: toward ergonomic assessment of wearable robots

  Hip [Deg] Knee [Deg] Ankle [Deg]
Condition V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 V3 V1 V2 V3
NW 1.7 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.5 2.2 ± 0.6 2.2 ± 0.5 1.6 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.3 1.4 ± 0.2
TM 2.0 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 1.4 2.2 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 1.6 2.1 ± 0.7 1.8 ± 0.3 1.6 ± 0.3
AM1 2.2 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.2 1.8 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.3 1.5 ± 0.2
AM2 2.4 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.5 1.8 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 0.6 2.9 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.2 1.7 ± 0.4
AM3 2.2 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.3 2.4 ± 1.0 2.9 ± 0.4 2.7 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.7 2.1 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.4 1.7 ± 0.4
  1. Condition coding: slow speed (V1), self-selected speed (V2), fast speed (V3), natural walking –no APO- (NW), transparent mode -APO shadows the wearer- (TM), low assistance (AM1), moderate assistance (AM2), high assistance (AM3)