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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the participants

From: Effects of combining robot-assisted therapy with neuromuscular electrical stimulation on motor impairment, motor and daily function, and quality of life in patients with chronic stroke: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial

  RT + ES (n = 20) RT + Sham (n = 19) P Values
Sex (male/female) 15/5 14/5 .925
Age (years) 54.07 (11.85) 53.75 (9.11) .924
Months since stroke 25.40 (17.09) 27.95 (16.20) .636
Side of brain lesion (left/right) 9/11 10/9 .634
Type of stroke (hemorrhage/ischemic) 10/10 8/11 .621
Handedness (left/right) 0/20 0/19
UE-FMA 30.70 (9.76) 26.63 (10.58) .219
MMSE 27.10 (1.83) 27.47 (1.78) .522
Time of PT (hours/week) 3.56 (3.45) 2.45 (3.26) .310
  1. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation)
  2. RT robot-assistive therapy, ES electrical stimulation, UE-FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment upper extremity subscore, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination