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Table 2 Clinical outcome scores pre-training (T01), post-training (T08) and at follow-up (T15)

From: Feasibility study into self-administered training at home using an arm and hand device with motivational gaming environment in chronic stroke

Outcome measures (P-values) T01 T08 T15 ΔT08-T01 ΔT15-T01 ΔT15-T08
FMb   37 (30) 41 (32) 40 (32) +4 (6) +3.0 (9) +0 (4)
  (P = 0.002)     0.001 0.003 0.312
FM_proxa   21.7 (8.2) 24.5 (8.8) 24.8 (9.0) +2.8 (3.9) +3.1 (4.4) +0.3 (1.5)
  (P = 0.012)     0.010 0.012 0.784
FM_distb   15 (17) 16 (17) 16 (18) +1 (2) +1 (4) +0 (1)
  (P = 0.078)       
ARATb   20 (44) 29 (45) 29 (45) +1 (2) +1 (4) +0 (3)
  (P = 0.101)       
MAL_AOUb   0.7 (2.0) 0.6 (2.2) 1.5 (1.9) +0.0 (0.5) +0.0 (0.8) +0.0 (0.4)
  (P = 0.753)       
MAL_QOMb   0.9 (1.8) 1.1 (1.8) 1.5 (1.8) +0.0 (0.6) +0.2 (0.5) +0.1 (0.4)
  (P = 0.229)       
SISa   56.3 (13.2) 60.0 (13.9) 59.8 (15.2) 3.7 (4.9) 3.5 (6.6) -0.1 (4.1)
  (P = 0.004)     0.003 0.055 0.999
SIS_Strengtha   44.7 (20.4) 55.4 (21.7) 49.4 (22.0) +10.6 (11.8) +4.7 (13.6) -5.9 (15.0)
  (P = 0.004)     0.003 0.352 0.169
SIS_Memoryb,c   90.6 (46.9) 87.5 (31.3) 87.5 (34.4) +0.0 (3.1) +0.0 (6.3) +0.0 (6.3)
  (P = 0.303)       
SIS_Emotiona   65.7 (15.9) 67.6 (15.9) 70.0 (16.3) +1.9 (11.0) +4.4 (12.0) +2.5 (11.1)
  (P = 0.248)       
SIS_Communicationb,c   85.7 (17.9) 89.3 (14.3) 85.7 (14.3) +0.0 (14.3) +0.0 (14.3) +0.0 (10.7
  (P = 0.523)       
SIS_ADLa   57.1 (18.9) 59.3 (20.6) 54.6 (19.8) +2.2 (7.4) -2.5 (9.2) -4.7 (9.9)
  (P = 0.077)       
SIS_Mobilityb,c   55.0 (40.0) 67.5 (42.5) 70.0 (40.0) +2.5 (12.5) +5.0 (15.6) +0.0 (15.0)
  (P = 0.014)     0.051 0.029 0.955
SIS_Hand_functionb,c   5.0 (55.0) 15.0 (60.0) 20.0 (55.0) +0.0 (15.0) +0.0 (15.0) +0.0 (10.0)
  (P = 0.927)       
SIS_Participationa   48.9 (20.8) 50.9 (21.1) 56.0 (23.3) +2.1 (16.0) +7.2 (17.0) +5.1 (13.9)
  (P = 0.132)       
SIS_Recoverya   52.3 (17.7) 54.0 (20.0) 53.0 (24.8) +1.7 (11.3) +0.8 (17.7) +1.0 (14.8)
  (P = 0.813)       
  1. Group mean or median values at T01, T08 and T15 are displayed, in addition to change scores over training (ΔT08-T01), after the end of training (ΔT15-T08) and over training and follow-up in total (ΔT15-T01). P-values of the main effect are displayed in the second column and in case of significance, P-values of post-hoc tests are displayed in the last three columns (significant P-values in bold).
  2. Abbreviations : FM Fugl-Meyer, FM_prox Fugl-Meyer proximal part, FM_dist Fugl-Meyer distal part, ARAT Action Research Arm Test, MAL_AOU Motor Activity Log Amount of Use, MAL_QOM Motor Activity Log Quality of Movement, SIS Stroke Impact Scale, SIS_ADL Stroke Impact Scale Activities of Daily Living section, T01 baseline measurement pre-training, T08 evaluation measurement post-training, T15 two-month follow-up evaluation measurement
  3. aNormally distributed variables displayed by mean (standard deviation) and analyzed by mixed models repeated measures analysis
  4. bNon-parametric variables displayed by median (interquartile range) and analyzed by Friedman ANOVA
  5. c N = 19 because of incomplete dataset