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Table 2 Bilateral group.

From: Testing the potential of a virtual reality neurorehabilitation system during performance of observation, imagery and imitation of motor actions recorded by wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)

Bilateral group [N = 8] Observation right Observation left Imitation right Imitation left
Left hemisphere (μmol/l ± SD)
Mean Δ[O2Hb] 0.0924 ± 0.3369 0.0835 ± 0.4589 0.1905 ± 0.5515 0.2712 ± 0.4424
Mean Δ[HHb] -0.0028 ± 0.1039 -0.0138 ± 0.1923 0.0206 ± 0.1569 0.0297 ± 0.1273
T-test, CI 95%     
[O2Hb] p = value p = 0.016* p = 0.046* p = 0.003* p < 0.001*
[HHb] p-value p = 0.807 p = 0.523 p = 0.244 p = 0.040*
ANOVA, post-hoc-tests, Bonferroni 0.05 [HHb] p-value [O2Hb] p = value  
  O - MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  O - O&MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  O - IM p = 1.000 p = 0.080  
  MI - O&MI p = 0.868 p = 0.822  
  MI - IM p = 0.393 p = 0.056  
  O&MI - IM p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
main effect on condition p = 0.222 p = 0.028*  
Right hemisphere (μmol/l ± SD)
Mean Δ[O2Hb] 0.1135 ± 0.3607 0.1091 ± 0.4261 0.2004 ± 0.4740 1.1475 ± 2.5449
Mean Δ[HHb] 0.0018 ± 0.1388 0.0037 ± 0.1441 0.0163 ± 0.1325 0.068 ± 0.1773
T-test, CI 95%     
[O2Hb] p = value p = 0.006* p = 0.025* p < 0.001* p = 0.001*
[HHb] p-value p = 0.906 p = 0.817 p = 0.275 p = 0.001*
ANOVA, post-hoc-tests, Bonferroni 0.05 [HHb] p-value [O2Hb] p = value  
  O - MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  O - O&MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  O - IM p < 0.001* p < 0.001*  
  MI - O&MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  MI - IM p < 0.001* p < 0.001*  
  O&MI - IM p < 0.001* p < 0.001*  
main effect on condition p < 0.001* p < 0.001*  
  1. (Top) Mean signal amplitudes (μmol/l ± SD) of channels with significant concentration changes. Separate calculations for increases in [O2Hb], decreases in [HHb] in response to the four conditions for each group. Numbers were rounded to four decimal places. (Middle) Intra-condition statistical significance of the mean change between [O2Hb]rest and [O2Hb]stim and [HHb]rest and [HHb]stim using the paired t-test; confidence interval (CI) = 95%. (Bottom) Inter-condition statistical significance of mean changes of Δ[O2Hb] and Δ[HHb] between the four conditions using ANOVA. Shown are post-hoc tests (with Bonferroni correction); significant values (p ≤ 0.05) are highlighted by * (observation left = O_L, observation right = O_R, imitation left = IM_L, imitation right = IM_R)