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Table 1 Unilateral group.

From: Testing the potential of a virtual reality neurorehabilitation system during performance of observation, imagery and imitation of motor actions recorded by wireless functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)

Unilateral group [N = 15] Observation Motor imagery Observation & motor imagery Imitation
left hemisphere (contralateral) (μmol/l ± SD)
Mean Δ[O2Hb] 0.0692 ± 0.4510 0.0868 ± 0.5201 0.0446 ± 0.5741 0.1715 ± 0.4567
Mean Δ[HHb] -0.0052 ± 0.1247 0.0356 ± 0.2043 -0.0089 ± 0.2391 0.0212 ± 0.1685
T-test, CI 95%     
[O2Hb] p = value p = 0.154 p = 0.049* p = 0.333 p < 0.001*
[HHb] p-value p = 0.161 p = 0.061 p = 0.760 p = 0.323
ANOVA, post-hoc-tests, Bonferroni 0.05 [HHb] p-value [O2Hb] p = value  
  O - MI p = 0.387 p = 1.000  
  O - O&MI p = 1.000 p = 1.000  
  O - IM p = 1.000 p = 0.509  
  MI - O&MI p = 0.265 p = 1.000  
  MI - IM p = 1.000 p = 0.934  
  O&MI - IM p = 1.000 p = 0.194  
  1. (Top) Mean signal amplitudes (μmol/l ± SD) of channels with significant concentration changes. Separate calculations for increases in [O2Hb], decreases in [HHb] in response to the four conditions for each group. Numbers were rounded to four decimal places. (Middle) Intra-condition statistical significance of the mean changes between [O2Hb]rest and [O2Hb]stim and [HHb]rest and [HHb]stim using the paired t-test; confidence interval (CI) = 95%. (Bottom) Inter-condition statistical significance of mean changes of Δ[O2Hb] and Δ[HHb] between the four conditions using ANOVA. Shown are post-hoc tests (with Bonferroni correction); significant values (p ≤ 0.05) are highlighted by * (observation = O, motor imagery = MI, observation & motor imagery = O & MI, imitation = IM)