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Table 5 Stance RMS EMG for therapist-controlled and patient-controlled orthoses by speed. Mean ± standard error and statistical results for the normalized average root mean square muscle activation calculated from the stance phase electromyography records for: tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and medial hamstrings (MH). Two subjects with partial paralysis walked with orthoses powered under pushbutton control by a therapist (TC) and with orthoses powered under pushbutton control by the patient him/herself (PC) at 0.36 m/s, 0.54 m/s, 0.72 m/s and 0.89 m/s. Stance phase root mean square EMG was normalized to the without condition at 0.54 m/s for each muscle.

From: The effects of powered ankle-foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

  ANOVA p-value THSD 0.36 m/s 0.54 m/s 0.72 m/s 0.89 m/s
    TC PC TC PC TC PC TC PC
TA 0.0090 *
P = 0.83
PC > TC 0.61 ± 0.16 0.89 ± 0.54 0.71 ± 0.32 1.01 ± 0.58 0.76 ± 0.27 1.08 ± 0.41 0.66 ± 0.14 1.04 ± 0.45
SOL 0.4801
P = 0.10
  0.85 ± 0.16 0.73 ± 0.33 0.80 ± 0.13 0.78 ± 0.40 0.99 ± 0.16 0.94 ± 0.52 1.13 ± 0.09 1.03 ± 0.49
MG 0.7697
P = 0.06
  0.95 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.20 0.97 ± 0.01 1.03 ± 0.24 1.17 ± 0.04 1.16 ± 0.35 1.39 ± 0.10 1.26 ± 0.34
LG 0.7072
P = 0.06
  0.93 ± 0.21 0.88 ± 0.22 0.95 ± 0.01 1.01 ± 0.28 1.20 ± 0.09 1.21 ± 0.44 1.53 ± 0.21 1.29 ± 0.42
VM 0.2861
P = 0.18
  0.86 ± 0.01 0.97 ± 0.07 1.09 ± 0.10 0.77 ± 0.25 1.13 ± 0.07 1.17 ± 0.09 1.22 ± 0.13 1.02 ± 0.00
VL 0.1380
P = 0.31
  0.95 ± 0.03 0.89 ± 0.04 0.95 ± 0.03 0.65 ± 0.16 0.98 ± 0.04 1.00 ± 0.16 0.98 ± 0.04 0.91 ± 0.06
RF 0.6351
P = 0.07
  0.88 ± 0.06 0.82 ± 0.01 0.94 ± 0.03 0.63 ± 0.18 0.96 ± 0.00 1.12 ± 0.23 0.94 ± 0.05 0.97 ± 0.06
MH 0.3099
P = 0.16
  1.01 ± 0.01 1.36 ± 0.35 1.17 ± 0.14 1.18 ± 0.68 1.43 ± 0.34 1.73 ± 0.48 1.48 ± 0.38 1.38 ± 0.31
  1. Values are means ± SE. Data are unitless because of normalization. See METHODS for calculations.
  2. * Indicates a p-value of less than 0.05 showing significant differences between conditions. Statistical power, P, is reported under the p-value. Tukey Honestly Significant Difference, THSD, results are reported for metrics with significance.
  3. Two subjects completed all conditions at all speeds.