Skip to main content

Table 3 Stance RMS EMG for without, passive and therapist-controlled orthoses by speed. Mean ± standard error and statistical results for the normalized average root mean square muscle activation calculated from the stance phase electromyography records for: tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (SOL), medial gastrocnemius (MG), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and medial hamstrings (MH). Subjects with partial paralysis walked without-orthoses (WO), wearing orthoses unpowered or passive (PA) and wearing orthoses powered under pushbutton control by a therapist (TC) at 0.36 m/s (five subjects), 0.54 m/s (five subjects), 0.72 m/s (four subjects) and 0.89 m/s (four subjects). TA is for four subjects at all speeds. Stance phase root mean square EMG was normalized to the without condition at 0.54 m/s for each muscle.

From: The effects of powered ankle-foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

  ANOVA p-value THSD 0.36 m/s 0.54 m/s 0.72 m/s 0.89 m/s
    WO PA TC WO PA TC WO PA TC WO PA TC
TA 0.0845
P = 0.49
  0.87 ± 0.16 0.72 ± 0.16 0.75 ± 0.10 0.89 ± 0.02 0.75 ± 0.12 0.81 ± 0.14 1.10 ± 0.12 0.99 ± 0.12 0.80 ± 0.16 1.04 ± 0.10 1.07 ± 0.04 0.79 ± 0.15
SOL 0.0197 *
P = 0.72
TC < PA 0.81 ± 0.08 0.94 ± 0.06 0.80 ± 0.05 0.95 ± 0.02 1.07 ± 0.06 0.87 ± 0.07 1.06 ± 0.08 1.07 ± 0.06 0.99 ± 0.07 1.14 ± 0.10 1.27 ± 0.15 1.12 ± 0.06
MG 0.0229 *
P = 0.70
PA > WO 0.70 ± 0.11 0.87 ± 0.11 0.79 ± 0.13 0.92 ± 0.02 1.12 ± 0.08 1.00 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.10 1.14 ± 0.10 1.08 ± 0.10 1.12 ± 0.13 1.34 ± 0.19 1.27 ± 0.13
LG 0.0436 *
P = 0.61
PA > WO 0.79 ± 0.09 0.91 ± 0.08 0.83 ± 0.10 0.93 ± 0.01 1.08 ± 0.08 0.98 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.10 1.15 ± 0.02 1.12 ± 0.06 1.18 ± 0.07 1.35 ± 0.09 1.35 ± 0.14
VM 0.0145 *
P = 0.76
PA > WO 0.81 ± 0.05 0.94 ± 0.05 0.83 ± 0.04 0.97 ± 0.00 1.09 ± 0.07 1.08 ± 0.08 1.12 ± 0.05 1.16 ± 0.06 1.06 ± 0.07 1.16 ± 0.02 1.26 ± 0.05 1.14 ± 0.08
VL 0.0424 *
P = 0.61
PA > WO 0.86 ± 0.03 0.95 ± 0.03 0.90 ± 0.06 0.96 ± 0.01 1.16 ± 0.09 1.05 ± 0.11 1.10 ± 0.04 1.18 ± 0.10 1.07 ± 0.14 1.12 ± 0.02 1.21 ± 0.08 1.16 ± 0.19
RF 0.0123 *
P = 0.77
TC < PA
PA > WO
0.85 ± 0.04 0.94 ± 0.03 0.93 ± 0.08 0.95 ± 0.01 1.13 ± 0.06 1.06 ± 0.09 1.17 ± 0.09 1.15 ± 0.06 1.01 ± 0.10 1.17 ± 0.03 1.30 ± 0.08 1.09 ± 0.13
MH 0.1954
P = 0.34
  0.92 ± 0.03 0.86 ± 0.06 0.89 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.02 0.98 ± 0.04 1.02 ± 0.08 1.02 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.10 1.22 ± 0.18 1.03 ± 0.08 1.13 ± 0.13 1.19 ± 0.22
  1. Values are means ± SE. Data are unitless because of normalization. See METHODS for calculations.
  2. * Indicates a p-value of less than 0.05 showing significant differences between conditions. Statistical power, P, is reported under the p-value. Tukey Honestly Significant Difference, THSD, results are reported for metrics with significance.
  3. Five subjects completed all conditions at 0.36 m/s and 0.54 m/s. Four subjects completed all conditions at 0.72 m/s and 0.89 m/s.
  4. TA is for four subjects for all conditions at all speeds.