Skip to main content

Table 2 Kinematics for without, passive, and therapist-controlled orthoses by speed. Mean ± standard error and statistical results for kinematics of subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury who walked without-orthoses (WO), wearing orthoses unpowered or passive (PA) and wearing orthoses powered under pushbutton control by a therapist (TC) for 0.36 m/s (five subjects), 0.54 m/s (five subjects), 0.72 m/s (four subjects) and 0.89 m/s (four subjects).

From: The effects of powered ankle-foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

  ANOVA p-value THSD 0.36 m/s 0.54 m/s 0.72 m/s 0.89 m/s
    WO PA TC WO PA TC WO PA TC WO PA TC
Ankle ROM (deg)    17.3 ± 4.0 16.5 ± 2.5 31.2 ± 3.5 19.8 ± 5.1 18.9 ± 2.5 29.9 ± 1.8 25.6 ± 6.9 21.7 ± 3.6 27.7 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 7.3 23.7 ± 3.9 25.9 ± 2.7
Max Ankle (deg) <0.0001 *
P = 1.00
TC > PA
TC > WO
PA < WO
2.8 ± 4.2 -1.0 ± 3.9 13.5 ± 3.9 4.0 ± 4.2 0.72 ± 3.9 12.0 ± 3.7 10.7 ± 4.4 4.4 ± 3.4 11.8 ± 2.6 12.0 ± 5.6 6.8 ± 3.5 10.3 ± 1.7
Knee ROM (deg) 0.4136
P = 0.20
  44.4 ± 8.8 43.3 ± 8.7 47.3 ± 8.7 44.3 ± 9.7 47.9 ± 7.1 49.4 ± 6.6 52.6 ± 9.1 53.0 ± 5.9 53.6 ± 5.0 53.5 ± 8.7 54.1 ± 5.1 52.9 ± 4.1
Hip ROM (deg) <0.0001 *
P = 1.00
TC < PA
TC < WO
25.6 ± 3.4 24.6 ± 3.5 23.2 ± 2.8 28.4 ± 3.1 28.2 ± 2.7 23.9 ± 2.9 31.5 ± 4.0 28.7 ± 3.5 24.3 ± 3.3 33.6 ± 3.3 32.0 ± 3.6 26.4 ± 3.5
Total Time (s) 0.2360
P = 0.30
  1.98 ± 0.24 1.92 ± 0.22 1.88 ± 0.14 1.65 ± 0.17 1.62 ± 0.15 1.54 ± 0.13 1.57 ± 0.15 1.49 ± 0.13 1.42 ± 0.09 1.31 ± 0.08 1.35 ± 0.11 1.34 ± 0.07
Stance Time (s) 0.7611
P = 0.10
  1.26 ± 0.19 1.18 ± 0.15 1.26 ± 0.15 1.01 ± 0.11 0.98 ± 0.10 0.99 ± 0.10 0.92 ± 0.09 0.88 ± 0.07 0.87 ± 0.08 0.76 ± 0.03 0.80 ± 0.07 0.74 ± 0.05
Swing Time (s) 0.0643
P = 0.54
  0.72 ± 0.06 0.74 ± 0.09 0.61 ± 0.07 0.65 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.05 0.65 ± 0.06 0.62 ± 0.06 0.56 ± 0.04 0.53 ± 0.06 0.55 ± 0.06 0.60 ± 0.07
Double Support Time (s) 0.0173 *
P = 0.74
TC > WO 0.27 ± 0.12 0.27 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.15 0.18 ± 0.06 0.22 ± 0.05 0.25 ± 0.06 0.13 ± 0.03 0.15 ± 0.04 0.17 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.01
  1. Values are means ± SE. See METHODS for calculations.
  2. * Indicates a p-value of less than 0.05 showing significant differences between conditions. Statistical power, P, is reported under the p-value. Tukey Honestly Significant Difference, THSD, results are reported for metrics with significance.
  3. Five subjects completed all conditions at 0.36 m/s and 0.54 m/s. Four subjects completed all conditions at 0.72 m/s and 0.89 m/s.
  4. Double support time is for four subjects for all conditions at all speeds.