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Table 3 Augmentation factor calculation for six studies

From: Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load carriage

Study Mass p+ pdis mfoot mshank mthigh mwaist i = 1 4 β i m i AF Metabolic impact
(kg) (W) (W) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg)
(W) (W) (W)
van Dijk et al. [12] 75 3 0 3* 3* 3* 3* 88 -81 -90
Walsh et al. [9] 76 7 -5 1.41 1.41 5.12 3.66 69 -64 -67
Donelan et al. [10] 78 0 -9 0 1.6 1.6 0 18 -40 -62
Malcolm et al. [22] 66 9 0 0.4** 1.1** 0 0 12 10 12
Sawicki & Ferris [20, 34] 80 16 0 .75 2.0 0 0 22 17 10
Present Study 84 23 0 0.5 1.75 0 1.71 23 33 36
  1. Six studies were found that reported both metabolic results and applied mechanical power [9, 10, 12, 20, 22, 35]. Powers that were not explicitly stated in literature were computed from provided graphs. The included exoskeletal masses are those worn on the foot, shank, thigh and waist (enumerated by i in equation 4). The β coefficient was 14.8 W/kg for mass added to the foot, 5.62 W/kg for the shank, 5.55 W/kg for the thigh, and 3.33 for the waist [17]. *The location of the exoskeleton mass was not described, so the mass was evenly distributed across the leg. **The exact location of the exoskeleton mass was not described, but the device is similar to the device studied by Sawicki & Ferris, so the same mass distribution was used.