Example of muscle onset prediction from kinematic data captured during stretch-reflex testing of a patient with high flexor tone (MAS = 3) . The top panel shows the patient’s angular displacement curves for actual and reference profiles. The next two panels show velocity (ω) and acceleration (α) departures from the reference profile. The peak departure acceleration preceding the peak departure velocity is taken to be the departure onset time (Tk). The kinematic peaks (Δω and Δα) were used to represent discrete measures of kinematic departure, and the area-under-the-curve (hatched region) was used to represent the density measures of kinematic departure (ϵω and ϵα).